Types of trees

Black pine

Genus Pinus, with more than 110 species described, is the largest recent conifer genus. The natural distribution of the genus is restricted to the northern hemisphere, except for one P. merkusii population located south of the equator at Sumatra [1]. Black pine (Pinus nigra) is one of the long-lived conifer species, over 400 years old. [2]. Environmental factors significantly affect the maximum height of black pine, and in optimal conditions can grow up to 40 meters in height. [2]. It can be maintained in extreme slope and bedrock conditions, on often skeletal soil and on almost completely vertical limestone, dolomitic and serpentine cliffs. It is therefore one of the most important species for afforestation of dry and rocky terrains [3]. Black pine wood was used in shipbuilding. Black pine is also valued for landscaping, both in parks (isolated trees or in groups), and in urban and industrial contexts due to its tolerance to pollution.

Silver birch

Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and European birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) are short lived (life span is generally 90 to 100 years), relatively small hardwood species that occur throughout much of Europe as far as central Siberia [4]. Silver birch is a tree that reaches a height of 30 m, and a European birch rarely exceeds a height of 20 m. Because it can tolerate a wide range of natural conditions, and especially poor soil, birch is often used to restore and improve the soil, so that other tree species can be planted later. Silver birch is used to make expensive veneers and decorative wood products, while European birch is used to produce pulp and cheap firewood. Birches grow in mountainous areas and are very important in stabilizing the soil and preventing soil erosion. [5]

Sessile oak

Sessile oak (Quercus petraea) is a species found throughout Europe, from Scandinavia to the Iberian, Apennine and Balkan Peninsula. It loves light, fertile and often rocky backing. It grows mainly on the slopes and on top of hills. A large amount of light also suits them. Pure oak forests are very rarely encountered in nature, otherwise they are mainly consisted of mixed forests with hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), maple (Acer campestre, Acer platanoides) and others. The increasing demand for these trees and the decline of natural forests have stimulated the development of modern cultivation. Sessile oak is used as a quality firewood, wood for construction and furniture. Oakwood is used to make high quality wine and alcohol barrels, and throughout history have been used to build ships. [6]

Austrian oak

Sycamore maple

Silver linden


[1] Šarac Zorica, Doktorska disertacija (2014), UTVRĐIVANJE VARIJABILNOSTI I DIFERENCIJACIJE PRIRODNIH POPULACIJA PINUS NIGRA ARNOLD U SRBIJI KORIŠĆENJEM FITOHEMIJSKIH I MOLEKULARNIH MARKERA, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Biološki fakultet. https://www.pmf.ni.ac.rs/download/master/biologija/radovi/2017/2017-06.06-st.pdf

[2] http://ies-ows.jrc.ec.europa.eu/efdac/download/Atlas/pdf/Pinus_nigra.pdf

[3] Pavlović M. (2018): Ekofiziološke adaptacije vrsta Pinus Nigra ARN., Aesculus Hippocastanum L. i Platanus Acerofilia (AIT.) WILLD. u urbanim sredinama sa različitim izvorom zagađenja-Doktorska disertacija, Biološki fakultet, Beograd

[4] www.stonelanegardens.com

[5] European Atlas of Forest Tree Species: Betula pendula, betula pubescens and other birches in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threaths, P. Beck, G. Caudillo, D. De Rigo, W. Tinner, 2016.

[6] European Atlas of Forest Tree Species: Quercus robur and Quercus petraea in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threaths, E. Eaton, G. Caudillo, S. Oliveira, D. De Rigo, 2016.

[7] www.euforgen.org/fileadmin//templates/euforgen.org/upload/Publications/Technical_g uidelines/Technical_guidelines_Quercus_cerris.pdf

[8] www.researchgate.net/publication/304004384_Changing_the_Potential_Distribution_of_Turkey_Oak_Quercus_cerris_L_under_Climate_Change_in_Turkey

[9] Cvjetićanin R., Brujić J., Perović M., Stupar V. (2015): Dendrologija. Šumarski fakulteti, 564 str. Beograd-Banjaluka.

[10] Milivoje Ćirić (1986), Pedologija, Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva, Sarajevo

[11] dpps.org.rs/priroda/srebrna-lipa-tilia-tomentosa

[12] bioresources.cnr.ncsu.edu/resources/soil-characteristics-of-natural-silver-linden-tilia-tomentosa-moench-populations

[13] hdl.handle.net/11772/3258